Reforestation with food forest seems to be the best answer to creating food resilience;
- more productivity per square meter when using Permaculture and re-balancing the ratio between crops (less) and vegetables (more).
- carbon sequestration to reduce global warming
- weather stability (temperature, hygrometry, extreme weather)
The issue stands in the agro-industry where crop is considered as biomass; an input in the transformation process to produce industrial food. Re-architecturing the supply chain would represent a monumental investment and an important shift in the balance of power.
The advantage of chop and drop is the use of the most nutritious part of the tree to create a rich organic layer on the soil which will be processed by fungus to regenerate the soil in the initial steps of reforestation. The two factors to consider are as following;
- 80% of the nutrients in the tree are found in the branches from 1cm to 5cm of diameter;
- Before the leaves fall from the branches (natural process of deciduous trees) the nutrients present in the leaves come back to the branches, therefore the leaves which are falling naturally on the floor do not have a lot of nutrients.
In this video the main point is taking advantage of rich nutrient leaves, including a certain ratio of nitrogen to make easy composting, an alternative to chop and drop.
The monitoring of the compost pile can be made through various techniques demanding low labor;
- nitrogen addition using animal urine spread on the pile (accelerator toward hot-composting);
- Inclusion of bamboo canes in the pile during its formation to create oxygen canals and avoid turning the pile. This will depends on the leave material and its capacity to create cavities in the pile; soft leaves will compact and create an anaerobic environment (to be avoided). Mixture of hard and curved leaves with soft leaves can help as well;
- addition of composting worms after the hot phase to increase the quantity of beneficial micro-organisms;
- inclusion of green layers for microorganisms inoculation and nitrogen ratio increase;
- inclusion of bamboo leaves (e.g. still green following the same process of harvesting) will provide with silicates which is used by microorganism to create aggregates together with the soil when the compost is added to the top soil.
This video includes considerations about agricultural context of Brazil;
Graphene mass production was the industrial bottleneck to allow derived technologies to uprise. Graphene will allow a technical leverage like never before in green technologies;
- Solid state batteries and super-capacitors able to be recharged in minutes with an extensive number of cycle , which means rapid obsolescence of thermic motors and explosion of Electric Vehicle commercialization.
- Breakthroughs in photovoltaic technology and industrialization
- Carbon bases materials of high resistance versus plastic or metal
- Water desalination cost reduction (although negative impact could happen in this area if not managed properly)
Biochar has been put on the front of the stage when large areas of Amazon were identified as fertile although tropical soil is usually poor. South American Indian civilization is the only to have increased soil fertility, Every other civilization in history has been responsible for soil depletion, often associated with civilization collapse.
The beneficial properties of Biochar identified till now are;
- Soil texture modification improving water availability. Addition of biochar to clay improve drainage, addition of biochar to sand improve water retention
- Creation of a stable environment for microorganisms and nutrients
- Source of carbon for microorganisms
- Modification of soil acidity
The objective of this video is to emphasize the idea that biochar production in a Permaculture food forest could be a step of a process, being a byproduct of food cooking or ceramic cooking more than the result of a main intend. In the process of reducing the number or the biomass of fast growing leguminous trees planted at the first stages of forest succession and the production of firewood as a way to maintain the forest in a pre-climax stage to optimize biomass production, biochar production is a continuous process of fertility development and carbon sequestration starting usually in Zone 1 and extending in consecutive zones.
UN report on the state of the world’s water
The UN report calls for “conservation agriculture”, which would make greater use of rainwater rather than irrigation and regularise crop rotation to maintain soil cover.
Link ; https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/19/water-shortages-could-affect-5bn-people-by-2050-un-report-warns?CMP=share_btn_link